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U.S. Submarines in World War II

With the dramatic exception of USS Nautilus, U.S. submarines made a poor showing at the Battle of Midway. However, with more experienced and aggressive commanders, better torpedoes, newer boat designs and growing numbers, the tide turned. By war’s end, the submarine force, representing less than two percent of the Navy, accounted for fifty-five percent of Japan’s maritime losses. This achievement came at high cost – nearly 3,500 U.S. submariners perished during the war, over twenty percent of those who made patrols. This was the highest casualty rate for any branch of the U.S. military. May those brave men be … never forgotten!  Excerpt from The Search for the Japanese Fleet.

USS Nautilus - 5
USS Nautilus taking on provisions prior to departing Pearl Harbor, 11 December 1942. Note the huge six-inch caliber deck guns. U.S. Navy.


The 73rd Anniversary of the Battle of Midway

Servicemen and women are recognized annually during Veterans’ Day, but another day of commemoration is coming up: the 73rd anniversary of the Battle of Midway. Fought from June 4 to 7, 1942, the epic engagement halted Japanese expansion and was the Pacific turning point of World War II. My new book, The Search for the Japanese Fleet, remembers the heroes of Midway, particularly the ninety-three men of USS Nautilus, who fought bravely, played a key role in the U.S. victory, and risked all to stand for freedom. The book features interviews with some of the men who were there. Though most have passed on to “Eternal Patrol,” a few remain with us. I have recently become acquainted with Henry “Hank” Kudzik, who served on Nautilus from 1942-44, and Jerry Gross, who was a young Machinist Mate on board during the battle, and sailed with the submarine through 1943. Kudzik will be attending this year’s annual Midway commemoration hosted by the Naval Submarine League (, and will be presented an autographed copy of my book in recognition of his service. In the words of Harold “Buzz” Lee, radioman on board Nautilus during the battle, “… that terrible day of June 4th, 1942 should never be forgotten by any American, ever.”

Buzz Lee with ADM Nimitz
Radioman First Class Harold “Buzz” Lee is decorated by Admiral Chester Nimitz, Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Fleet, on the occasion of the award of the Presidential Unit Citation to USS Nautilus, December 1942. The citation read in part, “For outstanding performance in combat during three aggressive war patrols in enemy-controlled waters.” Courtesy Harold Lee.

The Connection between Ocean and Space Exploration

There is a strong connection between ocean and space exploration, both in terms of technology as well as in the spirit of discovery. Over the last few years, Nauticos has been working with World View Enterprises, a company that works in extreme environments in space and underwater. Their latest project is developing a system to loft a manned capsule to the edge of space using a stratospheric balloon. At 100,000 feet, Voyagers will see the black of space, the atmosphere below, and the curvature of the earth, as shown in this test flight footage. The World View system will be used for science, technology, and tourism. See

World View’s high-altitude balloon
World View’s high-altitude balloon will let Voyagers gently soar for hours along the frontier of space.